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Mt. Papandayan

Mount Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano, located in Garut Regency, to the southeast of the city of Bandung in West Java, Indonesia. At the summit, there are four large craters, and it contains active fumarole fields. The 1772 eruption caused the northeast flank to collapse, producing a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly 3000 people. It truncated the volcano into a broad shape with two peaks and a flat 1.1 km wide of Alun-Alun crater in the middle, making it look like a twin volcano. One of the peaks is called Papandayan and the other is Mount Puntang.

Since 1772, only small phreatic eruptions had occurred prior to an explosive eruption that began in November 2002. In August 14, 2011 the volcano's alert to the second-highest level due to emitting dangerous Hydrogen sulfide and Carbon monoxide gases. People including tourists to stay more than 2 kilometers (1.25 miles) from the yellow craters on the 2,665-meter (8,743-foot) Mount Papandayan.

Mount Papandayan is a large composite volcano. It is constructed of alternating layers of lava and ash, and other fragmental volcanic rock debris formed by explosive eruptions over the past several hundred years. A large horseshoe-shape crater extended to the northeast resulting in an avalanche deposit consisted of intermixed volcanic debris and alternated rocks, with steep-sided crater walls. Numerous small vents within the crater, known as Kawah Mas, Kawah Baru, Kawah Nangklak, Kawah Manuk and many other with solfataras emitting smoke and hot fumes from its inner sides.

The Mount Papandayan area is a popular touristic area. Tourists can walk across the crater and view phenomena such as bubbling mud pools, steam vents and sulfur deposits. The bubbling yellow crater (Kawah Papandayan or "Papandayan Crater") is a popular sight.

Above the crater is the elfin forest and several meadows with the Javanese edelweiss.

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